I have answered this question below with a compiled list of building materials used for construction in Nigeria and their average cost price in Naira in the market. Price of 1 tonne (42pcs/tonne) of 25mm steel rod == ₦180,500 Concrete nails. 1 pack of 2 inches == ₦940 1 pack of 3 inches == ₦1,500 1 pack of 4 inches == ₦1,250. similarly, for M20 or 20MPa concrete, refer above table with mix ratio of 1:1.5:3, you will find, 395 kg of cement or 7.9 bags of cement, 0.414 cubic meter of sand (FA) and 0.828 cubic meter of stone (CA). I hope this clears the doubt.

Carbon Footprint of Building

"Concrete is the most commonly used construction material in the world and is the second most consumed product in the world after fresh water. Concrete is made with 10-15% Portland cement, which requires heat and energy inputs resulting in about one tonne of greenhouse gas emissions for every one tonne of cement produced."

amount of raw materials. The quantities of wastes used as raw materials in clinker production have more than doubled since 2001. In 2004, waste raw materials used in clinker production allowed the cement industry to make a direct saving of almost 14 million tonnes of conventional raw materials, which is equivalent to about 6,5 % of the natural

The space should be wide enough to mix concrete and to pour it in mold. Make the mold: Use plywood planks and nails to make a one side open box with an inner cavity of 300mm (length) x 200mm (width) x 150mm (thick). This is the standard size of a concrete brick. Prepare the concrete mix: Get a large container, as large as you can get in your

Definition: Raw materials are the inputs or resources that a company uses to manufacture its finished products. In other words, this is the unprocessed material like metal stock, rubber blanks, or unrefined natural resources that companies use in there manufacturing processes to produce finished goods to sell to consumers.

This material has a 1-1/2 inch top size and is a clean material. Often used for backfill for retaining walls, used for subase for sheds, also sometimes used as driveway stone. Also used as the primary raw aggregate in Ready Mixed Concrete and some Hot-Mixed Asphalt mixes. Will not compact.

Recycling Facts

• Producing one ton of new glass from raw materials generate approximately 384 pounds of mining waste, but using recycled glass instead of raw materials can cut this number by almost 75 percent. the amount of water used by 1 person in 2 month's time and almost 2000 pounds of oil. followed by asphalt concrete (18 percent). Wood

mining operations. For example, in 2000 the amount of crushed rock produced was 1.7 billion tons. With an average ore recovery ratio of 94 percent, the amount of waste material produced was 130 million tons. This calculates to a total of 1.8 billion tons of materials handled in crushed rock mining. Figure 9-2. Materials Handled for Crushed Rock

Dec 02, 2015Figure 1. shows that it takes 24 times less energy to produce one ton of wood than it does steel, making the manufacturing process for wood the most energy efficient compared to any other building material (Wood: Sustainable Building Solutions, 2012, p. 5).

Concrete is used more than any other manmade material in the world. In addition, concrete is the 2 nd most consumed substance in the world-behind water . The industry alone is worth over $37 billion, and it employs more than 2 million employees in the United States . About 10 billion tons of concrete are produced every year .

• Manufacture of one ton (2000 lbs) of steel from iron ore consumes 3170 lbs of ore, 300 lbs of limestone, 900 lbs of coke (made from coal), 80 lbs of oxygen, and 2575 lbs of air (+/-7025 lbs total raw materials!). • Process releases 4550 lbs of gaseous emissions, and 600 lbs of slag and 50 lbs of dust are generated

Raw Material Transport Raw Material Storage Ground Material Storage Product Storage (3-05-027-60) 1 2 3 1 1 Emission point PM emissions Combustion product emissions Organic emissions 1 2 3 1 1 1 11.19.1-4 EMISSION FACTORS 11/95 Figure 11.19.1-2. Process flow diagram for industrial sand and gravel processing. (Source Classification Codes in

How hard it will get and how much it will crack has a lot to do with the amount of water and cementitious material used to make it. Joe Nasvik Testing slump, compressive strength, and air entertainment on the jobsite is a time honored way to tell how concrete will perform and whether it

technology, and material efficiency. • Energy is also consumed indirectly for the mining, preparation, and transportation of raw materials. In the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) route, this accounts for about 9% of the total energy required to produce the steel, including raw material extraction and steel production processes.


Dec 28, 2000produce a ton of hot-mix asphalt in 1995. This average compares to a total cost per ton to produce of $16.70 in 1994 and $17.12 in 1993. However, lowest cost producers produced hot-mix asphalt at an average of $14.70/ton in 1995. This represents a 10.4% jump from $13.32 per ton

used to make these metals. For example, looking in the low-dilution area of the figure, the Gibbs free energy for the ores for titanium (TiO2) and aluminium (Al2O3) is relatively large (18.9 and 29.5MJkg−1, respectively) compared with the Gibbs free energy for the ores used to produce iron

Introduction. Sand and gravel are used extensively in construction. In the preparation of concrete, for each tonne of cement, the building industry needs about six to seven times more tonnes of sand and gravel (USGS, 2013b). Thus, the world's use of aggregates for concrete can be estimated at 25.9 billion to 29.6 billion tonnes a year for 2012 alone.

Both concrete calculators make an allowance for the fact that ballast etc losses volume when mixed to make concrete. Two Concrete Calculator are provided for different concrete mixes: General mix - 1:5 cement:all-in ballast or 1:2:3 cement:sharp sand:gravel. and ; Paving mix - 1:3 cement:all-in ballast or 1:1:2 cement:sharp sand:gravel.

At the core of these four basic overarching battery components are the foundation blocks; the raw materials necessary for the construction of a battery. Minerals and materials used in the construction of batteries are numerous but the core mineral required to have a battery is the batteries chemical which can either be : cadmium, cobalt, lead

Introduction. Sand and gravel are used extensively in construction. In the preparation of concrete, for each tonne of cement, the building industry needs about six to seven times more tonnes of sand and gravel (USGS, 2013b). Thus, the world's use of aggregates for concrete can be estimated at 25.9 billion to 29.6 billion tonnes a year for 2012 alone.

• The non-metallic mineral sub-sector accounts for about 9% of global industrial energy use, of which 70 to 80% is used in cement production. • The average primary energy intensity for cement production ranges from 3.4 to 5.3 gigajoules per tonne (GJ/t) across countries with a weighted average of 4.4 GJ/t.

If predetermined quantities are used, the method used to make concrete is to dry blend solids and then slowly add water (with admixtures, if used). It is usual to dissolve admixtures in the mix water before adding it to the concrete. Superplasticizer is an exception. Forms can be made from many materials.

What materials are used to make wind turbines? According to a report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, wind turbines are predominantly made of steel (71-79% of total turbine mass), fiberglass, resin, or plastic (11-16%), iron or cast iron (5- 17%), copper (1%), and aluminum (0-2%).

The proportions of cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water plays an important role in determining the fresh and hardended properties of concrete. So care should be taken while calculating the amount of Cement, Sand and Aggregate required for 1 Cubic meter of Concrete. Method-1: DLBD method to determine material requirement for 1 Cum concrete The DLBD (Dry Loose